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Project and Summary pages

Submitted Manuscripts (Comments Welcome)

Arnold, J. E., Pancani, G. P., & Rosa, E. C.. (under revision). Listeners perceive acoustic prominence differently for distracted and fluent speakers. Ms., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. [MANUSCRIPT] [SOUNDFILES]

Medina-Fetterman, A., Vazquez, N., & Arnold, J. E. (Under review). The Effects of Semantic Role Predictability on the Production of Overt Pronouns in Spanish. [MedinaFettermanVasquezArnoldcomplete] [[SUPPORTING MATERIALS]

Weatherford, K., & Arnold, J. E. (under review). Semantic predictability of implicit causality can affect referential form choice. Ms., University of North Carolina [MANUSCRIPT][MATERIALS]

Guan, S. & Arnold, J. E. (under review).  The predictability of implicit causes: testing frequency and topicality explanations.

Williams, E., & Arnold, J. E. (under review). Individual differences in print exposure predicts use of implicit causality in pronoun comprehension and referential prediction. Ms., University of North Carolina. [SUPPORTING MATERIALS]



Arnold, J. E., Mayo, Heather; Dong, Lisa. (in press). My pronouns are they/them: Talking about pronouns promotes singular they. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. [SUPPORTING MATERIALS]


Langlois, V., & Arnold, J. E. (2020). Print exposure explains individual differences in using syntactic but not semantic cues for pronoun comprehension. Cognition. [MATERIALS]

Arnold, J. E., Mayo, H., & Dong, L. (2020). Individual differences (or the lack of them) in comprehension of singular they. UNC Language Processing Lab, Technical Report #3. [to be posted here]


Zerkle, S. & Arnold, J. E. (2019). Does pre-planning explain why predictability affects reference production. Discourse and Dialogue, 10(2), 34-55.[journal page with article link]

Arnold, J. E. & Zerkle, S. (2019). Why do people produce pronouns? Pragmatic selection vs. rational models. Journal of Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience, 9, 1152-1175.[journal page for article]

Arnold J. E., Castro-Schilo L., Zerkle S., Rao L. (2019). Print exposure predicts pronoun comprehension strategies in children. Journal of Child Language 1–31. [MANUSCRIPT]

Davies, C., & Arnold, J. E. (2019). Reference and Informativity. In Cummins, C., & Katsos, N. Handbook of Experimental Semantics and Pragmatics.


Arnold, J. E., Strangmann, I., Hwang, H., Zerkle, S., & Nappa, R. (2018). Linguistic experience affects pronoun interpretation. Journal of Memory and Language, 102, 41-54.[SUPPORTING MATERIALS]

Huang, Y. & Arnold, J. (2018). When does [HOUSE, HOUSE, HOUSE] make “all of the houses”? Evidence from the production of quantity denoting expressions. Discourse Processes, 55, 686-703.

Fraundorf, S., Arnold, J. E. & Langlois, V. (2018) “Disfluency.” In Oxford Bibliographies in Linguistics. Ed. Mark Aronoff. New York: Oxford University Press. Link to Bibliography page  ==>originally published in 2014; updated in 2018

Arnold, J. E., Strangmann, I., Hwang, H., & Zerkle, S. (2018). Reference frequency: what do speakers tend to talk about? UNC Language Processing Lab, Technical Report #2 Arnold_Techreport2_2018


Zerkle, S., Rosa, E. C., & Arnold, J. E. (2017). Thematic role predictability and planning affect word duration. Laboratory Phonology: Journal of the Association for Laboratory phonology 8(1): 17, 1-28,

Arnold, J.E., & Nozari, N. (2017). The effects of utterance planning and stimulation of left prefrontal cortex on the production of referential expressions. Cognition, 160, 127-144.[MANUSCRIPT AND EXAMPLE OF TASK]

Rosa, E. C., & Arnold, J. E. (2017). Predictability affects production: Thematic roles can affect reference form selection.  Journal of Memory and Language, 94, 43-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.jml.2016.07.007 [PREPRINT]- final accepted manuscript]; see also Arnold_TechReport1_2017

Arnold, J. E. (2017). Fluency effects in human language: the integration of automatic and intentional mechanisms of acoustic variation in speech. In  Seyfarth & Cheney, The Social Origins of Language, Princeton University Press.  [MANUSCRIPT]  [BOOK]

Arnold, J. E. (2017). Latency analysis for Rosa & Arnold (2017). UNC Language Processing Lab, Technical Report #1.Arnold_TechReport1_2017


Zerkle, S., & Arnold, J. E. (2016 ). Discourse attention during utterance planning affects referential form choice. Linguistics Vanguard, 2. [PREPRINT]  [vanguard abstract]

Arnold, J. E. (2016). Explicit and emergent mechanisms of information status. TopICS, 8, 722-736 DOI: 10.1111/tops.12220


Arnold, J.E. & Lao, S. C. (2015). Effects of psychological attention on pronoun comprehension. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience, 30(7), 832-852. DOI: 10.1080/23273798.2015.1017511 [MANUSCRIPT]

Arnold, J. E. & Watson, D. G. (2015). Synthesizing meaning and processing approaches to prosody: performance matters. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience. DOI:10.1080/01690965.2013.840733 [MANUSCRIPT]

Rosa, E. , Finch, K., Bergeson, M. & Arnold, J.E. (2015). The Effects of Addressee Attention on Prosodic Prominence. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience. DOI:10.1080/01690965.2013.772213[MANUSCRIPT] [VIDEO]

Kahn, J. & Arnold, J.E. (2015). Articulatory and lexical repetition effects on durational reduction: speaker experience vs. common ground. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience.DOI:10.1080/01690965.2013.848989[MANUSCRIPT]

Arnold, J. E. (2015). Women and men have different discourse biases for pronoun interpretation. Discourse Processes, 52, 77-110. doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2014.946847[MANUSCRIPT]

Nozari, N., Arnold, J. E., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2014). The effects of anodal stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex on sentence production. Brain Stimulation, doi:10.1016/j.brs.2014.07.035. [MANUSRCIPT]

Nappa, R., & Arnold, J. E. (2014). The road to understanding is paved with the speaker’s intentions: Cues to the speaker’s attention and intentions affect pronoun comprehension. Cognitive Psychology, 70, 58–81. doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2013.12.003

Heller D., Arnold, J. E., Klein N. & Tanenhaus M. K. (2014 online). Inferring difficulty: Flexibility in the real-time processing of disfluency. Language and Speech. doi: 10.1177/0023830914528107

Fraundorf, S. & Arnold, J. E. (2014) “Disfluency.” In Oxford Bibliographies in Linguistics. Ed. Mark Aronoff. New York: Oxford University Press. Link to Bibliography page
** see update in 2018 by Fraundorf, Arnold, & Langlois.


Arnold, J. E. (2013). Information status relates to production, distribution, and comprehension. Reply to Maryellen C. MacDonald, How language production shapes language form and comprehension. Frontiers, 4.doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00235 [Link to Open Source Article]

Arnold, J.E., Kaiser, E., Kahn, J., Kim, L. (2013). Information structure; Linguistic, cognitive, and processing approaches. WIREs Cognitive Science, Wiley. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1234 (email for a copy of this manuscript).

Arnold, J.E. (2013). What does a theory of pronoun interpretation need to account for? Commentary on Kehler & Rohde, “A Probabilistic Reconciliation of Coherence-Driven and Centering-Driven Theories of Pronoun Interpretation”. Theoretical Linguistics 39, 59-73.

Arnold, J.E., Kahn, J. & Pancani, G. (2012). Audience Design Affects Acoustic Reduction Via Production Facilitation. Psychological Bulletin and Review, 19, 505-512.[VIDEO]

Kahn, J. & Arnold, J.E. (2012). A Processing-Centered Look at the Contribution of Givenness to Durational Reduction. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, 311–325.[MANUSCRIPT]


Arnold, J. E. (2011). Ordering choices in production: for the speaker or for the listener? In Bender, E. & Arnold, J. E. (Eds.), Language from a Cognitive Perspective: Grammar, Usage, and Processing. Studies in Honor of Thomas Wasow. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 199-222.

Rosa, E. C. & Arnold, J. E. (2011). The role of attention in choice of referring expressions. Proceedings of PRE-Cogsci: Bridging the gap between computational, empirical and theoretical approaches to reference, Boston, 2011.[PDF]

Arnold, J. E. & Tanenhaus, M. K. (2011). Disfluency isn’t just um and uh: the role of prosody in the comprehension of disfluency. In Gibson, E., and Perlmutter, N. (Eds) The processing and acquisition of reference, MIT Press.[MANUSCRIPT]

Arnold J. E. (2011). Pronouns. Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer.

Arnold J. E. (2011). Pronoun Errors. Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer.

Arnold J. E. (2011). Pronoun Reversals. Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer.

Arnold, J.E. (2010). How speakers refer: the role of accessibility. Language and Linguistic Compass, 4, 187-203.


Arnold, J.E., Bennetto, L., & Diehl, J. J. (2009). Reference Production in Young Speakers with and without Autism: Effects of Discourse Status and Processing Constraints. Cognition.

Arnold, J.E. (2008). THE BACON not the bacon: How children and adults understand accented and unaccented noun phrases. Cognition.[SOUNDFILES]

Arnold, J.E. (2008). Reference Production: Production-internal and Addressee-oriented Processes. Language and Cognitive Processes.[MANUSCRIPT]

Watson, D.G., Arnold, J.E., & Tanenhaus, M.K. (2008). Tic tac TOE: Effects of predictability and importance on acoustic prominence in language production. Cognition, 106, 156-1557.
Corrigendum to Tic Tac TOE


Arnold, J.E. & Lao, S. C. (2007). Put in last position something previously unmentioned: word order effects on referential expectancy and reference comprehension. Language and Cognitive Processes. [SUPPORTING]

Arnold, J.E., Hudson Kam, C., & Tanenhaus, M.K. (2007). If you say thee uh- you’re describing something hard: the on-line attribution of disfluency during reference comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 914-930.

Arnold, J.E., & Griffin, Z. (2007). The Effect of Additional Characters on Choice of Referring Expression: Everyone Competes. Journal of Memory and Language.

Arnold, J. E., Brown-Schmidt, S., & Trueswell, J. C. (2007). Pronoun comprehension in young children. Language and Cognitive Processes.


Wasow, T., & Arnold, J. E. (2005). Intuitions in Linguistic Argumentation. Lingua. 115, 1481-1496.

Arnold, J. E., Tanenhaus, M. K, Altmann, R., & Fagnano, M. (2004). The Old and Thee, uh, New. Psychological Science. 578-582. [[SUPPORTING MATERIALS – INSTRUCTION VIDEO]

Arnold, J. E., Wasow, T., Asudeh, A, and Alrenga, P. (2004). Avoiding Attachment Ambiguities: The Role of Constituent ordering. Journal of Memory and Language.

Arnold, J. E., Brown-Schmidt, S., Trueswell, J., and Fagnano, M. (2004). Children’s use of gender and order of mention during pronoun comprehension. In Trueswell, J. C. and Tanenhaus, M. K. (Eds)., Processing world-situated language: Bridging the language-as-product and language-as-action traditions. Boston: MIT Press.


Wasow, T., and Arnold, J. E. (2003). Postverbal constituent ordering in English. In G. Rohdenburg & B. Mondorf (Eds), Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English. The Hague: Mouton, 120-154.

Arnold, J. E. (2003). Multiple Constraints on Reference Form: Null, Pronominal, and Full Reference in Mapudungun. In J. W. Du Bois, L. E. Kumpf, and W. J. Ashby (Eds), Preferred Argument Structure: Grammar as Architecture for Function. John Benjamins.

Arnold, J. E., Fagnano, M., and Tanenhaus, M. K. (2003). Disfluencies signal theee, um, new information. Journal of Psycholinguistic Researc, 32(1), 25-36.


Arnold, J.E., Novick, J.M., Brown-Schmidt, S., and Trueswell, J. (2001). Children’s on-line use of gender and order-of-mention for pronoun comprehension. Proceedings from the Boston University conference on language development, 2000.[PDF]

Arnold, J. E. (2001). The effects of thematic roles on pronoun use and frequency of reference. Discourse Processes, 31(2), 137-162.[PDF]

Arnold, J. E., Eisenband, J. G., Brown-Schmidt, S, and Trueswell, J. C. (2000). The immediate use of gender information: eyetracking evidence of the time-course of pronoun resolution. Cognition 76, B13-B26.[PDF]

Arnold, J. E., Wasow, T., Losongco, T., & Ginstrom, R. (2000). Heaviness vs. Newness: the effects of structural complexity and discourse status on constituent ordering. Language. 76(1), 28-55.[SUPPORTING MATERIALS]

Thornton, R., MacDonald, M.C., and Arnold, J. E. (2000). The Concomitant Effects of Phrase Length and Informational Content in Sentence Comprehension. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 29(2), 195-203.[PDF]

1999 and earlier

Arnold, J. E., and MacDonald, M. C. (1999). The Effects of Referent Specificity and Utterance Contribution on pronoun resolution. In Martin Hahn and Scott C. Stoness, (Eds), Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.Vancouver, British Columbia, August 19-21, 1999, 31-36.[POSTSCRIPT]

Arnold, J. E. (1998). Reference Form and Discourse Patterns. Dissertation, Stanford University.

Arnold, J. E. (1997). The Inverse System in Mapudungun and Other Languages. Revista de Linguistica Teorica y Aplicada, 34, 9-48.[MANUSCRIPT]

Arnold, J. (1994). Inverse Voice Marking in Mapudungun. In S. Gahl, A. Dolbey, and C. Johnson (Eds.), The twentieth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society, 28-41.

Edited Volumes

Bender, E. & Arnold, J. E. (Eds.) (2011). Language from a Cognitive Perspective: Grammar, Usage, and Processing. Studies in Honor of Thomas Wasow. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. CSLI Book listing

Arnold, J. E., Blake, R., Davidson, B., Schwenter, S., and Solomon, J. (Eds). (1996). Sociolinguistic Variation: Theory, Data, and Analysis. Selected Papers from the twenty-third NWAV at Stanford University. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.CSLI Book listing

Unpublished Manuscripts

Arnold, J. E. (1999). Marking salience: The similarity of topic and focus. Unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania.[MANUSCRIPT]

Posters and Talk Abstracts

  • Arnold, J.E., Pancani, G.C., & Rosa, E.C. (2012). Acoustic Prominence Perceived Differently for Fluent and Distracted Speakers. Poster presented at AmLAP, September 2012.Poster handout (pdf)
  • Arnold, J. E., & Carpenter, K. (2010, March). Using disfluency to understand, um, sentences . . .with PP-attachment ambiguities Poster, CUNY conference on human sentence processing, New York City, NY. (Powerpoint half-size copy of poster). Supporting materials (sample soundfiles for off-line experiment):
  • Watson & Arnold (2005)[VIDEO AND DATA]